CONTEMPORARY MODELS FOR CLINICAL NURSING EDUCATION
Repository Posting Date2017-12-06T16:11:55Z
Author DetailsLauren Hill MSN, RN; Ellen P. Williams, PhD, RN
Lead Author Sigma AffliationNon-member
Level of EvidenceN/A
Approaches for clinical nursing education remain inadequate despite manifold calls for the use of alternative methods of experiential learning in schools of nursing. Mandates for transformation of clinical nursing education arise from multiple sources, including reports by the Institutes of Medicine and the Carnegie Foundation. On a pragmatic level, changes are driven by a scarcity of available clinical sites, generational differences in ways of learning, increased student/teacher ratios in traditional clinical settings, and an explosion of knowledge relative to health promotion, disease prevention, and treatment. Continuing use of traditional clinical nursing education models contributes to poor critical thinking and reasoning development among students and results in task-oriented approaches to teaching and learning. Consequently, students may lack the capacity to think through interventions that lead to positive patient outcomes. Traditional models often fail to cultivate trusting relationships necessary for goal attainment between students and educators. The purpose of this literature review is to explore contemporary clinical models for nursing education and to include findings regarding the creation of caring clinical learning environments which promote goal attainment by students and faculty.
Major search engines were used employing the phrases: nursing clinical education, nursing education models, and clinical education in nursing. Associate Degree (ADN) and Bachelor of Science (BSN) schools were included. Three key clinical nursing education models were identified and investigated. Features, advantages, and drawbacks associated with each approach are presented along with a discussion of perspectives on caring approaches used to stimulate student inquiry in the clinical setting. Caring relationships between students and educators have been found to enhance mutual goal setting through positive communication, constructive interactions and reduced stress. In conclusion, it is purported that new ways of delivering clinical education in nursing are warranted and will lead to increased graduate competence. Ultimately, patient outcomes will be improved.