Exploration of a Racially Diverse Sample of Nursing Students Satisfaction, Self-efficacy, and Perceptions of Simulation Using Racially Diverse Manikins
Crystal Graham, PhD, RN, CHSE; Cynthia Foronda, PhD, RN, CNE, CHSE, ANEF
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- International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning (INACSL)
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Background: The 2014 NCSBN study identified that the largest number of minority students were randomized to and withdrew from the 50% simulation group. These findings are significant as there is a paucity of research examining if race is a demographic characteristic that influences outcomes in simulation.
Objective: The study purpose was to explore potential trends of differences in self-efficacy, satisfaction, and perceptions of a racially diverse sample of students using racially diverse manikins in simulation.
Methods: An explanatory mixed methods design using a comparative group approach and focus groups was used in order to more deeply understand the students’ experiences.
Results: Change in self-efficacy scores (SES) were statistically significant for the entire sample (p < .001). There were no significant differences in change in SES by student or manikin race. Overall, satisfaction scores were not statistically significant. Qualitative findings identified that multiple level groups in simulation lessened the perceived racial divide and that the presence of minority faculty created a sense of belongingness for the minority participants. In addition, qualitative findings identified that the use of diverse manikins provided students with the opportunity to practice caring for patients that are representative of the current population.
Conclusion: Results of this study highlight the need for further research that will determine if a relationship exists between race, of both students and manikins, as a demographic characteristic and nursing student outcomes. In addition, further research is needed to determine if there is a perceived stereotype threat of participants that influences outcomes in simulation.
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