"Nurses Eat Their Young" Moves to Academia: Expert Nurse Researchers Treatment of Novice Nurse Researchers
Repository Posting Date2016-07-13T11:09:12Z
Author DetailsCindy Ford, RN, CNE
Lead Author Sigma AffliationIota Mu
Other Title(s)Incivility and Bullying in Healthcare
Session presented on Friday, July 22, 2016: Purpose: The nursing literature is resplendent with research and publications of the topic of nurse incivility, horizontal violence and bullying. Incivility in nursing is troubling (Clark & Springer, 2010) and incivility and bullying in nursing are complex problems (Luparell, 2011). The background and significance includes: The Joint Commission (2008) stated, 'Intimidating and disruptive behaviors can foster medical errors, contribute to poor patient satisfaction and to preventable adverse outcomes, increased cost of care, and cause qualified clinicians, administrators and manger to seek new positions in more professional environments' (Simpson, 2014; Murray, 2009; Stevens, 2002). Moreover the turnover rate for new nurses who have experienced bullying in a hospital setting can be as high as 50% within the first six months of employment (Lewis, 2004). Recent reports show 39% of graduates in their first year of practice witnessed bullying (Laschinger, 2011) and 31% experienced bullying (Laschinger & Grau, 2012). In a statewide survey in South Carolina, USA, nurses on the issue of horizontal violence, more than 85% of respondents reported being victims with experienced nurses often listed as perpetrators (Delaney & Zager, 2010). Wilson and colleagues (2011) also found 85% of nurses had experienced horizontal violence. A recent review of the literature reveals The question is 'Have these perpetrators of bullying, incivility and horizontal violence moved to the research arena of academia?' As the profession of nursing continues to grow developmentally to a profession of increased utilization of nursing generated empirical evidence for improved practice protocols and guidelines, have we 'grown' these perpetrators into the nursing research arena of academia? How are we treating our novice nurse researchers? Are there parallels of the treatment of the novice clinical nurse and the novice nurse researcher? Unfortunately, both nursing students and faculty perceive incivility to be a moderate problem in nursing academia (Luparell, 2011). Incivility in America is increasing (Forni et al., 2003) and rude and disruptive conduct is increasing in institutions of higher learning. Although studies on student and faculty incivility have been conducted in nursing education, there are no studies regarding the perceptions of academic nurse leaders about this problem (Clark & Springer, 2010). In Clark, Farnsworth, and Landrum (2009), Clark defined incivility in nursing education as rude or disruptive behaviors often resulting in psychological or physiological distress for the people involved and may progress in to threatening situations when left unaddressed. Thomas (2003) studied students' perceptions of faculty incivility and found nursing students believed some faculty play significant roles in academic incivility. Nursing students reported faculty unfairness, rigidity, insistence on conformity, and overt discrimination as behaviors contributing to academic incivility. Clark and Springer (2007a, 2007b) broadened the research to assess the problem of incivility from both the student and faculty perspectives. These studies revealed the majority of participant's perceived incivility as a moderate to serious problem and found that stress, disrespect, faculty arrogance, and a sense of student entitlement played a role in the incivility in nursing education. The literature reveals some parallels of the effects of incivility and bullying to workplace outcomes. In Bullying Affects Most Campus Employees, Hollis (2013) reported 62% of employees of higher education saw or experienced bullying, compared with 37% in the general workforce. Bullying occurs in overt and covert forms mostly against faculty unable to defend themselves against those in powerful positions (Frazier, 2011). Keashly and Neuman (2010) posed questions about hostile and aggressive behaviors in institutions that value intellectual inquiry, independent thought, and reasoned discussion. The bullying prevalence may be related to the competitive and performance driven culture of the U.S. society (Clearly, Walker, Andrew, & Jackson, 2013). Bullying negatively affects institutions effectiveness. In an environment burdened by bullying, faculty and staff withdraw from service, hindering institutional growth and innovation as heavier burdens are placed on still engaged faculty and staff. (Ambrose, Huston, & Norman, 2005). Once bullying begins, and the longer it continues, the more likely additional colleagues will be drawn into the situation, possibly accounting for faculty's higher bullying rates (Westhues, 2008). Additionally, in a sometimes overlooked portion of the Code of Ethics (ANA, 2001), nurses are reminded that we, in all professional relations hips and in all encounters, including those with colleagues, should act with respect. Specifically, nurses believe that ethical comportment precludes any and all prejudicial actions, any forms of harassment or threatening behavior, or disregard for the effect of one's actions on others (Luparell, 2011). If for no other reason than adherence to ethical treatment of a fellow human being as a living, breathing, human soul deserving of our utmost respect and kindness as a fellow traveler on this road of life, this topic must be explored. Methods: A qualitative study will be conducted to explore the faculty perceptions and practice performance related to the supervision and management of graduate students completing a research project with in a required graduate level course. A questionnaire survey will be created composed of likert style questions with additional open ended exploratory questions designed to identify perception and understanding of the faculty role during the supervision of graduate nurse novice researchers. The survey will be designed to explore faculty thoughts and practices related to bullying, incivility and treatment practices of novice nurse researchers. Additionally, after the participant submission of the survey, the researcher will conduct phone interviews with the participants with the goal of validation of the survey results to assure truthfulness and trustworthiness of the survey answers. It is expected that 30 participants will be utilized for the study. Each participant will complete and sign an informed consent form for participation in the study and be assigned a participant number. Only the researcher will know the participants code number and subsequent numbered answer responses. The collected data will be stored in a locked drawer with only the researcher holding the key for the drawer. After IRB approval of this qualitative study, the researcher will seek volunteer participants fitting the inclusion criteria. This study will only utilize faculty as participants. Results: The study will be conducted in the spring of 2016 with results available for presentation at the STTI Research Congress of Capetown, South Africa in July 2016. Conclusion: The literature is resplendent with evidence of bullying, incivility, anger and aggression or sometimes called horizontal violence with in the clinical novice nurse treatment/orientation to the role of registered nurse. It is believed the same behaviors have moved to the arena of orientation of the novice nurse researcher. The researcher believes a qualitative study will contribute to the nursing body of knowledge related to novice nurse researcher bullying, incivility, humiliation and or degradation. The profession of nursing must work to stop this behavior just as the behaviors related to bullying, humiliation and degradation of novice clinical nurses have been researched and published about in the nursing literature in recent years. Incivility, bullying, and horizontal/lateral violence are examples of workplace mistreatment that injure individual nurses and the ethical climate of organizations. When these behaviors are allowed, nurse job satisfaction and even retention are affected (Lachman, 2013). The evidence base developed by nurse scientist/researchers informs practice, promotes health and improves the lives of individuals across the lifespan (Grady et al., 2015). We must mentor and nurture these budding nurse researchers! Ultimately, it is the role of the academic leaders to foster cultures of civility where engagement can occur and respectful communication is encouraged (Clark & Springer, 2010). Researching the topic and raising awareness are two ways to begin the conversation related to the presence of incivility in academia and to ultimately eradicate the incidence of incivility in nursing academia.