The Effects of a Hardiness Educational Intervention on Hardiness and Perceived Stress of Baccalaureate Nursing Students.
Review TypePeer-review: Single Blind
Repository Posting Date2014-02-25T18:53:27Z
Author(s)Jameson, Paula R.
Lead Author Sigma AffliationDelta Tau at-Large
Original PublisherElsevier Health Sciences
Level of EvidenceQuasi-Experimental Study, Other
Research ApproachQuantitative Research
Despite the known benefits of hardiness education, no published research has been found on the effects of hardiness education with nursing students. Thus, the purposes of this study were first to determine if an increase in hardiness and a decrease in perceived stress in baccalaureate nursing students occurred in those who participated in a hardiness educational intervention. Secondly, to compare hardiness and perceived stress between baccalaureate nursing students who participated and those who did not participate in a hardiness educational intervention. A substruction of the application of Khoshaba and Maddi’s Hardiness Model and the Roy Adaptation Model provided the theoretical basis for this research.
The literature on stress verified its omnipresence and ongoing study. The nursing literature was replete with evidence of the stress of undergraduate nursing students. Appraisal of initial hardiness research facilitated the eventual establishment of a measurement instrument of hardiness and the inauguration of a hardiness educational program. Review of the Hardiness Model and the Roy Adaptation Model established connections and conceptual collaboration.
A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design with pretest and posttest was used with a nonprobability convenience sample (N = 79) of full-time junior level baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a clinical nursing course recruited from six National League for Nursing Accreditation Commission or Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education accredited nursing programs in Delaware and Pennsylvania.
Baccalaureate nursing students in the experimental group (n = 40) participated in a hardiness educational intervention. Baccalaureate nursing students in the control group (n = 39) did not participate in the hardiness educational intervention. The nursing students completed pretest and posttest measurements of hardiness (PVS III-R), perceived stress (PSS), and demographic data. Results of statistical analysis by independent and paired t-tests revealed that the hardiness educational intervention did not have a statistically significant (p > .05) effect on increasing hardiness scores. The hardiness educational intervention did have a statistically significant effect on decreasing perceived stress scores.
Findings were discussed relative to current literature and the theoretical framework. The lack of significant increase in hardiness was equivocal with Khoshaba and Maddi’s Hardiness Model. The significant decrease in perceived stress was congruent with the Hardiness Model and the Roy Adaptation Model. The substruction of the application of the HM and the RAM requires further research and evaluation. Further hardiness research among baccalaureate nursing students, utilizing the entire hardiness educational intervention, was recommended.
Degree GrantorWidener University
Date of Publication2013
Citation of Original PublicationJameson, P. R., (2013) The effects of a hardiness educational intervention on hardiness and perceived stress of junior baccalaureate nursing students. Nurse Education Today, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2013.06.019
Version of PublicationPre-print
NotesThis work has been approved through a peer-review process prior to its posting in the Virginia Henderson Global Nursing e-Repository.
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