Promoting breastfeeding through the use of a unique skin-to-skin intervention at an urban hospital
Jeannette T. Crenshaw, MSN, RN, IBCLC, LCCE, NEA-BC; Karin Cadwell PhD, RN, FAAN; Kajsa Hilarie Brimdyr PhD, CLC; Renee' Jones MSN, WHCNP; Carol Gentry BSN, RNC-OB; Armara Dickey BSN, RNC-OB; Nuala Murphy RN, IBCLC; Elizabeth H. Winslow PhD, RN, FAAN; Kristin Svennson RN, MTD; Ann-Marie Widstrom PhD, RN, MTD
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Improving breastfeeding rates is a healthcare priority. Skin-to-skin care after birth improves maternal and newborn outcomes and is an effective strategy to address the Joint Commission perinatal core measure for exclusive breast milk feeding at discharge. Optimal skin-to-skin begins immediately after birth and continues, uninterrupted, until after the first feeding. Skin-to-skin care often is not done, is interrupted, or is delayed until multiple procedures are completed (e.g., infant weights, episiotomy repair; cesarean surgery), despite evidence supporting the practice. We conducted a unique 5-day project to improve skin-to-skin care and measured the results. The project team (nurses from the Sweden, Massachusetts, and the study site, and a video-ethnographer) used the PRECESS method (Practice, Reflection, Education and training, Combined with Ethnography for Sustainable Success). This method involves educating clinicians on skin-to-skin care and support of newborns' 9 instinctive stages while skin-to-skin; expert mentoring, video-recording skin-to-skin care; interactively analyzing video-recordings; and, continued application of skills. We used descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze results. Eleven mothers and babies participated in the PRECESS intervention; 5 (56%) of the 9 mothers who planned to breastfeed were exclusively breast milk feeding at hospital discharge; 5 (100%) of the babies who went through all 9 instinctive stages during skin-to-skin were exclusively breast milk feeding at discharge; staff identified and overcame barriers to skin-to-skin care; mothers who had cesarean section reported immediate skin to skin care reduced stress during surgery. Monthly rates of skin-to-skin improved (p<0.000); rates among cesarean births improved (p<0.000). The PRECESS intervention may be an effective method for improving skin-to-skin care in short periods of time. Babies who undergo all 9 stages during skin-to-skin care may be more likely to leave the hospital having been exclusively breastfed. Skin-to-skin care may reduce maternal stress during cesarean surgery. More research is needed to confirm these promising trends.
41st Biennial Convention - 29 October-2 November 2011. Theme: People and Knowledge: Connecting for Global Health. Held at the Gaylord Texan Resort & Convention Center.
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Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding
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