Development and testing of a scale to measure self-efficacy for pelvic muscle exercises in women with urinary incontinence
Barbara S. Broome, PhD, RN, FAAN
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Previous research has demonstrated that behavioral interventions utilizing pelvic muscles can reduce or eliminate incontinence for many individuals. Active patient participation is a key component for all behavioral interventions; thus, a person's self-efficacy, the belief in one's ability to successfully participate in a behavior and one's belief that the behavior will produce a specified outcome, is an important ingredient to successful outcomes. Behavior specific measures of self-efficacy provide information about individual perceptions of a specific ability. To date, only one scale has been located that was developed to measure self-efficacy for pelvic muscle exercises in women with urinary incontinence, however psychometrics for the scale were not reported (Svengalis, Nygaard, Cervone & Kreder, 1995). The purpose of this methodological study was to: (1) develop a scale that can be used to measure perceived self-efficacy for pelvic muscle exercises; and, (2) test the scale for reliability and validity in a group of women with incontinence. The 23 item scale incorporated items from self-efficacy expectation and outcome expectation, the two domains of self-efficacy theory as they relate to urinary incontinence. Psychometric analysis of reliability and validity was determined from data collected from a sample of 115 cognitively intact incontinent women recruited from community and religious groups in Northeastern Ohio. The estimated internal consistency reliability of the Broome PMSES using Cronbach's alpha was.97 and test retest 14 days later was.72. Validity was examined by correlating the Broome PMSES with the depression and quality of life measures. The correlation, although modest for the depression (r = $-$.25, p $<$.01) and quality of life measures (r = $-$.36, p $<$.01) was in the anticipated direction. An additional clinic sample of 20 women treated for incontinence was recruited from continence treatment programs. In this sample, those women who reported fewer UI accidents after treatment had a significantly (p =.012) higher mean self-efficacy score at baseline than those who reported no reduction in accidents. The preliminary data from this study provides a foundation which can be used to modify the instrument and to examine reliability and validity in other populations with urinary incontinence.
This dissertation has also been disseminated through the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. Dissertation/thesis number: 9816849; ProQuest document ID: 304369546. The author still retains copyright.
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