Effect of Heparin Injectate Volume on Pain and Bruising Using the Roy Model
Review TypeNone: Degree-based Submission
Review StatusNot Applicable (See Review Type)
Repository Posting Date2019-09-13T19:55:50Z
Author(s)Stewart Fahs, Pamela S.
Author DetailsPamela S. Stewart Fahs, PhD, RN
Lead Author Sigma AffliationNon-member
Level of EvidenceRandomized Controlled Trial
Research ApproachQuantitative Research
CINAHL HeadingsHeparin; Injection Sites; Patient Attitudes; Injections; Pain; Injections -- Psychosocial Factors
This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of heparin injectate volume on pain and bruising using the Roy model. The study was undertaken to provide nurses with information on responses produced by two injectate volumes. The focal stimulus manipulated in this study was the injectate volume. In this crossover design, subjects (N = 50) served as their own control. Order of treatment and order of side of injection were randomized. Contextual stimuli held constant included dose, technique, syringe, needle, length of injection time, and injection site. Those stimuli not held constant were analyzed for variance within the sample and for effect on patient response. These variables included depression, age, sex, diagnosis, surgery, adipose tissue, side of injection site, time of injection, and two classes of medications administered in addition to heparin. Residual stimuli were partially controlled by the study design but not further analyzed. These variables included but were not limited to fear of injection, pain tolerance and threshold, some medications administered during the study, and skin color. The patient responses analyzed included pain of injection, bruise occurrence and size, and pain of injection site measured postinjection. Instruments used to measure the above responses were the Visual Analogue Scale, bruise count, scan of bruise tracing, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire - Short Form. In addition, the cost of preparation for administration of the two injectate volumes was analyzed via timed trials (N = 50). Five registered nurses prepared one injection of each volume for administration while being timed with a stop watch. Cost per vials of the two injectate volumes also was analyzed. All eight null hypotheses were accepted. It was concluded that the focal stimulus manipulated did not produce differences in responses measured. The proposed effect of injectate volume on pain of injection, bruise occurrence and size, and pain of injection site was not supported. There was no significant association found for depression and pain responses. There was no association between bruise occurrence or size and pain of injection site. Analysis highlighted areas of difference in the sample. The conceptual framework did guide the exploration of contextual stimuli and their influence on output as well as variance among the sample.
DescriptionThis dissertation has also been disseminated through the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. Dissertation/thesis number: 9208080; ProQuest document ID: 303944662. The author still retains copyright.
Degree GrantorThe University of Alabama at Birmingham
NotesThis item has not gone through this repository's peer-review process, but has been accepted by the indicated university or college in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the specified degree.
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