The Use of Ice for Pain Associated with Chest Tube Removal
Review TypeNone: Degree-based Submission
Review StatusNot Applicable (See Review Type)
Repository Posting Date2019-09-04T19:46:23Z
Author(s)Sauls, Jenny L.
Author DetailsJenny L. Sauls, PhD, MSN, RN, CNE
Lead Author Sigma AffliationXi Alpha
Level of EvidenceRandomized Controlled Trial
Research ApproachQuantitative Research
CINAHL HeadingsCold; Treatment Related Pain; Chest Tubes; Tube Removal; Treatment Related Pain -- Therapy; Heat-Cold Application; Cold -- Therapeutic Use
The purpose of this experimental study was to ascertain whether the application of ice would decrease pain before, during, and after chest tube removal (CTR) in adults who have undergone cardiothoracic surgery. Fifty postcardiac surgery patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Subjects in the experimental group received ice therapy (independent variable) for 10 min before CTR, while subjects in the control group received a placebo. The Multidimensional Conceptualization of Pain Framework and the theory that ice decreases nerve conduction velocity, thereby inhibiting pain impulses, provided the supporting frameworks to guide the study. The investigator applied ice on either side of the chest tube(s) covering a 6 sq. in. area around the tube(s). The ice was applied directly over one 4 x 4 in. gauze dressing and was secured with dim 10-in. strips of 3-in. cloth tape. The investigator was notified by the Nurse Practitioner (NP) or resident prior to CTR to provide time for the intervention. Pain intensity and pain distress (dependent variable) were measured on a 0–10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and pain quality was measured using the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF). Baseline measures of pain distress and pain intensity were taken before ice application (Time 1), ice was applied for 10 min, and pain intensity and pain distress were measured again immediately prior to CTR (Time 2). Immediately after CTR, pain intensity and pain distress were measured again (Time 3), and 10 min later pain intensity and pain distress were measured for the last time (Time 4). The patient was also asked to rate the quality of his or her pain during CTR using the MPQ-SF at Time 4. The Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant differences in pain intensity or pain distress between the experimental and control groups. A significant change in pain over time was noted in both groups with pain intensity and distress being most severe during chest tube removal. Descriptive statistics indicate that both groups used all the quality descriptors on the MPQ-SF for the sensory and affective components of pain.
DescriptionThis dissertation has also been disseminated through the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. Dissertation/thesis number: 9964658; ProQuest document ID: 304591958. The author still retains copyright.
Degree GrantorThe University of Alabama at Birmingham
NotesThis item has not gone through this repository's peer-review process, but has been accepted by the indicated university or college in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the specified degree.
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