The Relationship Between Health Locus of Control, Perceived Self-efficacy, Hardiness, and Recovery in Schizophrenia
Review TypeNone: Degree-based Submission
Repository Posting Date2019-05-31T15:56:11Z
Author(s)Bender, Anne W.
Author DetailsAnne W. Bender, DNSc, RN
Lead Author Sigma AffliationEta Eta
Level of EvidenceCross-Sectional
Research ApproachQuantitative Research
CINAHL HeadingsSchizophrenia; Locus of Control -- Evaluation; Self-Efficacy -- Evaluation; Hardiness -- Evaluation; Recovery -- Evaluation; Locus of Control; Self-Efficacy; Hardiness; Recovery
Approximately 1 out of 100 persons in the United States will be diagnosed as schizophrenic at some point in their lives. As an illness with onset in late adolescence or early young adulthood, schizophrenia has been described as having a homogeneous course of long-term chronicity. Recent literature has delineated more heterogeneity of outcome, but studies identifying factors related to recovery have been sparse. Using as a theoretical framework the stress-vulnerability model of schizophrenia, and concepts from social learning theory and existential psychology, this study examined the relationship between health locus of control, perceived self-efficacy, hardiness, and recovery, and which would be the best predictor of recovery. With a descriptive, correlational, ex post facto design, the study was conducted in nineteen outpatient mental health facilities using a purposive sample of 85 outpatient subjects with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Instruments included Strauss-Carpenter Level of Function Scale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale for Schizophrenic-Spectrum Disorders, and Health-Related Hardiness Scale. Only one of the hypotheses was supported; findings demonstrated that there was a significant relationship between health-related hardiness and level of function. Although entered fourth in the hierarchical model of the regression analysis, health-related hardiness was the only significant predictor of recovery, explaining approximately 9% of the variance. An additional finding was a significant negative relationship between chance health locus of control and level of function. Implications of the study include the need for nurses to recognize that a negative belief in the role of chance as controlling one's health was associated with recovery and should be pursued through factual education about the illness, its causes, course, and treatment. Nursing interventions that focus on internal efforts and traditional expectations of control or mastery of schizophrenia by the client may be counterproductive. Nurses should recognize hardiness as a personality characteristic present in some individuals with schizophrenia and support the development of the elements of hardiness. Elements include a sense of control as expressed in a negative belief in the role of chance as controlling one's health and a commitment to dealing with the challenge of chronic illness.
DescriptionThis dissertation has also been disseminated through the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. Dissertation/thesis number: 9529077; ProQuest document ID: 304170118. The author still retains copyright.
Advisor(s)White, Jane H.
Degree GrantorThe Catholic University of America
NotesThis item has not gone through this repository's peer-review process, but has been accepted by the indicated university or college in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the specified degree.
Visits vs Downloads
Visitors - World Map
Top Visiting Countries
Top Visiting Cities
Visits (last 6 months)
Downloads (last 6 months)
Popular Works for Bender, Anne W. by View
Popular Works for Bender, Anne W. by Download