Physical Activity as an Intervention for Pain Based on Gate Control Theory
Review TypeNone: Degree-based Submission
Repository Posting Date2019-05-20T13:38:57Z
Author(s)McDonald, Martha E.
Author DetailsMartha E. McDonald, DNS
Lead Author Sigma AffliationPsi Epsilon
Level of EvidenceRandomized Controlled Trial
Research ApproachQuantitative Research
CINAHL HeadingsPain Measurement; Pain--Therapy; Anxiety--Evaluation; Locus of Control--Evaluation; Pain--Physiology; Exercise; Muscles; Pain; Anxiety; Locus of Control; Pain
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity on pain tolerance and pain perception. The expectation that physical activity would reduce the perception of pain was deduced from clinical observation and propositions of the Gate Control Theory. The specific proposition tested was that large primary afferent fiber stimulation would inhibit pain perception. Following this proposition, stimulation of innocuous fibers by muscle movement should mediate pain perception. The hypothesis tested was that there would be no difference in time to tolerance or descriptors of pain perception among subjects when they experienced noxious stimulation with no intervention and when they experienced noxious stimulation with muscle movement, which stimulated appropriate large primary afferent fibers. Subjects were thirty registered nurses and nursing students. Pain was produced by a pressure finger clip device. Pain tolerance was measured as the amount of time from onset of pressure until subjects indicated they could not tolerate the discomfort any longer. Pain perception was measured by three scales: (1) the McGill Pain Questionnaire verbal descriptors, (2) the McGill Pain Questionnaire pain rating index, and (3) a visual analog scale. Cognitive-emotive factors affect pain perception by altering sensory interpretation and by descending influences to the spinal cord. Two cognitive-emotive factors that have been implicated in alterations of pain perception are anxiety and locus of control. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Nichols' pain specific locus of control tool were employed to measure anxiety and locus of control. The data were analyzed by a 2 x 2 ANOVA with repeated measures on the second factor. The null hypothesis was rejected with all pain measures. When subjects experienced the intervention they were able to tolerate the pain longer, selected fewer and less severe pain descriptors, selected lower pain rating indicators, and indicated less pain on the visual analog scale than when subjects did not experience the intervention (control). The study contributes to theory building by support of the Gate Control Theory proposition of pain inhibition by large primary afferent fiber stimulation. The selection of muscle movement as an effective inhibition technique has been supported. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.)
DescriptionThis dissertation has also been disseminated through the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. Dissertation/thesis number: 8820237; ProQuest document ID: 303635608. The author still retains copyright.
Degree GrantorIndiana University
NotesThis item has not gone through this repository's peer-review process, but has been accepted by the indicated university or college in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the specified degree.
Visits vs Downloads
Visitors - World Map
Top Visiting Countries
Top Visiting Cities
Visits (last 6 months)
Downloads (last 6 months)
Popular Works for McDonald, Martha E. by View
Popular Works for McDonald, Martha E. by Download
The citations below are meant to be used as guidelines. Patrons must make any necessary corrections before using. Pay special attention to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Always consult appropriate citation style resources for the exact formatting and punctuation guidelines.