HIV risk reduction behaviors in adolescent females; The influence of mastery and self-esteem
Repository Posting Date2011-10-27T11:11:33Z
Author DetailsEllen Long-Middleton, Clinical Associate Professor, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Grand Isle, Vermont, USA, email: email@example.com
Level of EvidenceCross-Sectional Study
Research ApproachQuantitative Research
Purpose. The purpose of the study was to test the moderator effect of mastery on the relationship between self-esteem and HIV risk reduction behaviors. Aims. The aims of this study were to: 1) examine the relationships among mastery, self-esteem and HIV risk reduction behaviors in a culturally-diverse group of adolescent females, and 2) determine if differences exist in relationships among mastery, self-esteem and HIV risk reduction behaviors among three cultural groups. Framework. AIDS is a leading cause of death in adolescent and young adult populations. Heterosexual transmission of HIV is the fastest growing mode of infection among women, and minority populations are affected disproportionately. It is important to identify and assess psychological determinants of HIV risk reduction behaviors, in order that health care interventions may be tailored to maximize a client's preventive efforts. The psychological characteristics of self-esteem and mastery were examined in this study. Mastery, a global sense of control over one's life, and self-esteem, the value placed on oneself, work together to provide formidable barriers to the stressful consequences of social strain. It was theorized that mastery would potentate self-esteem, and would moderate the influence of self-esteem on HIV risk reduction behaviors through the strengthening of this relationship. Methods. An urban primary care setting in a tertiary care center served as the site for this study, in which a cross-sectional, correlational design was used. The sample consisted of 224 adolescent females 15-19 years of age. Of the 224 participants, 109 identified themselves as black, 58 as Latina, and 57 as white. Participants completed the Pearlin Mastery Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Metzger High Risk Sexual Relationships Subscale of the Adolescent Problem Severity Index, and a demographic data form. All scales had demonstrated psychometric evidence. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the research hypotheses. Results & Conclusions. No moderator effect of mastery on self-esteem and HIV risk reduction behaviors was found. Mastery and self-esteem did not predict HIV risk reduction behaviors in the total sample or in the cultural subgroups. Age was inversely related to HIV risk reduction behaviors in the total sample and in the black group of participants; household income was positively associated with HIV risk reduction behaviors in only the black group. Age and number of hours worked were inversely related to HIV risk reduction behaviors in white adolescent females who had jobs. Despite non-significant moderation relationships, there is enhanced understanding of what did not provide explanatory value. Implications for Nursing Practice & Knowledge Development in Nursing. Further study is needed to determine significant predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors in these cultural groups.